Index Peeling

Apple peel

Apples contain an impressive list of micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, polyphenols, pectin and many other useful substances that make apples one of the healthiest fruits for humans.

Thanks to its unique properties, apple cider vinegar is widely used in cosmetology for beauty & care products development, in particular for skin cleansing products made of apples.

Apple cider vinegar has a positive impact on the skin providing astringent, drying and calming effect promoting skin rejuvenation by peeling off dead skin cells.

Apple peel is a type of fruit peel containing 10-15% malic acid among other fruit acids in the peel solution. It provides mild wrinkle- and scar-smoothing effect significantly improving skin texture and skin tone, increasing skin firmness and elasticity.

Indications for apple peel:

1. Hyperpigmentation
2. Natural aging and photo-aging
3. Couperosis and telangiectasia
4. Skin atony (skin sagging)
5. Hyperkeratosis (thickening of the outer layer of the skin)
6. Mild acne (comedones softening and normalization of sebum secretion)

Contraindications for apple peel:

1. Allergy or individual intolerance to any components of the peel solution
2. Acute herpes
3. Pregnancy and lactation
4. Damaged skin
5. Neoplasms
6. Skin diseases
7. Acute inflammatory diseases
8. Chronic diseases in acute phase

Advantages of apple peel

Apple peel can be used in any season by people of any age and on skin of any type including problem and sensitive skin. It is also one of the most effective chemical peels for couperosis-prone skin.

Apple peel solution doesn’t contain any mechanical abrasives. The cleansing and polishing effect is achieved by acid softening connections between cells of the horny layer and the epidermis.

Disadvantages of apple peel

Since apple peel is a mild superficial peel, it has a less pronounced effect compared to other types of chemical peels such as glycolic or salicylic peels. It is hardly able to remove deep wrinkles and scars.

Properties of the active ingredient

The active ingredient of apple peel is malic acid (also known as hydroxy-succinic acid or E296) naturally extracted from fruits (such as green apples, grapes, rheum, ashberry, barberry, gooseberry, raspberry) or produced industrially.

Malic acid is a metabolite (an intermediate of metabolism of the living organisms). In the glyoxylate cycle and citric acid cycle as well as by gluconeogenesis malic acid transforms into malate which can be converted to oxaloacetate, fumurate and pyruvate under enzymatic reactions.

Malic acid provides following effects:

1. antioxidant
2. capillary strengthening
3. cheratolic
4. hydration
5. immunostimulatory
6. bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory
7. regenerative
8. lipid layer restoring

Containing malic acid, apple cider vinegar is often used for home-made peels. It is a great natural pH-adjusting agent which makes ph-balance of the skin more acidic creating conditions that suppress the vital activity of harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi providing strong antibacterial effect. Therefore apple cider vinegar helps to control blemishes, clean pores and get rid of irritated skin. The pH-balance and skin’s natural protective barrier restores by itself in a short time after the procedure (in most cases not longer than in a week).

Apple cider vinegar also contains a large amount of amino acids which promote intensive cell regeneration, protection from the harmful effect of free radicals, increase collagen production and provide replenishment of deficient nutrients including vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C and E), acids (lactic, citric, malic, oxalic), minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, silicon, copper, sulfur and phosphorus) and enzymes.

Home-made apple cider vinegar is considered to be most effective, because only home production can guarantee that the end product contains enough vitamins, amino acids, pectins, enzymes and beta-carotene which is a natural antioxidant neutralizing free radicals.

There are many different recipes for a home-made apple peel. For example, apple cider vinegar is diluted with water in the ratio 1:8 adding some cloves and lavender. The mixture should be kept in a dark place for a week to infuse, periodically shaking the bottle. The peel solution should be stored at low temperatures (in a fridge). Apple peel can also be prepared using 1 tbsp of honey, 1 tsp of table salt and 1 tbsp of apple cider vinegar. The ingredients are mixed together and ready to be used immediately. Another simple recipe of apple peel includes 2 tbsp of apple cider vinegar diluted with 0,5 l of water.

However many cosmetic companies produce apple peel solutions which are usually made of various ingredients and excipients that boost effectiveness of the solution and extend the spectrum of action. For example, sugar cane and maple extract provide deep moisture and calming effect, papaya, orange, gypsophila root and blueberry extracts provide deep cleansing effect, calendula flowers calm the skin and wild apple extract provides antioxidant effect.

Pre-peel skin preparation

The first stage of pre-peel skin preparation is make-up removal and skin cleansing using cleansing foam or gel. Then a proper skin lotion is used to tone the skin and remove skin oil. If apple peel is performed at home (with a low concentration of malic acid), the face can be steamed to ease dead skin cells removal. Just turn the stream of hot water in the shower right on your face or use a towel soaked in hot water applying it on your face for 30 seconds a few times until the skin gets steamed.

Apple peel stages

Salon apple peel solutions usually also contain some other mild acids such as mandelic and lactic acids amounting to 25%. The peel solution is applied with a fan-shaped brush to the face, neck and the area around the eyes for 10 minutes. Then the peel is neutralized with a special alkaline agent or water.

Apple peels for home use usually have a gommage-like form which is supposed to be used as a normal gommage scrub. Apply a thin layer of the product evenly to the face and neck skin excluding periorbital and lips area. Take a small amount of the product, gently stretch the skin with one hand and massage the product into the skin with the middle and the ring finger of the other hand. Start from the chin area and go upwards following the massage lines. As soon as the peel solution gets dry (in about 1-2 minutes), roll it off gently with slow circular movements. Then wash your face with warm water and apply skin toner.

The procedure can also be performed using cotton or linen wipes soaked in a homemade apple peel solution and applied on the face as close as possible to each other. To treat normal skin, the wipes should be applied a few times for 10-15 minutes with 1-2-minutes intervals. Oily skin with enlarged pores requires some more time, while a minimum number of procedures is enough for dry sensitive skin.

After the procedure the face should be washed with warm water and gently massaged with a soft towel following the massage lines until the dead skin cells are completely removed from the skin surface. Then the face should be moisturized with a cream. Appeared skin redness disappears in 20 minutes.

Application of a proper skin moisturizer with sunscreen (SPF 20 or more) is necessary to finish the procedure.

Number of needed treatments

Oily and normal skin should be treated twice a week, while dry and sensitive skin – only once a week. The course takes 10-15 procedures.

Post-peel skin care

Problem skin with blemishes should be daily washed with apple cider vinegar to increase acidity of the skin surface and fight harmful bacteria which cause skin irritation by a pH lower than 5,5. Alkaline soaps should be avoided.

Potential complications after apple peel

Apple peel used on dry skin provides high risk of skin dehydration, therefore a proper moisturizer is highly recommended to be used during the treatment course. Apple peel is a mild superficial chemical peel which usually never causes any complications. In some cases, when used on dry, thin, sensitive skin, slight skin peeling may occur on the cheeks as well as skin itching and red spots. Special skin care for sensitive skin prone to irritation should be used at home after the procedure.

A slight hyperemia may occur, however it disappears by itself in a few hours after the procedure. Application of a calming face cream is recommended to speed up the healing process.

Herpes aggravation is also possible. To avoid it, preventive medications should be taken prior to the procedure.

Remember that some skin types are very sensitive to the acids and may show individual intolerance. To find out whether there is a risk, apply a small amount of the peel solution to the most sensitive skin area – for example, to the wrist, and leave it for a few minutes. If any irritations occur, application of the apple peel to the large skin area should be avoided.

In case of contact with eyes wash rinse immediately with plenty of water. Skin scaling, irritation and red spots may occur in case of exceeded dosage or exposure time.

Effect of apple peel

1. More even skin tone and significantly reduced redness
2. Reduced pigmentation spots
3. Restored skin pH-balance
4. Smoothed wrinkles and fine lines
5. Sooth and soft skin
6. Firm and elastic skin

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