Face peel is a deep facial cleansing treatment which aims to exfoliate dead skin cells, even out the skin surface, cleanse the skin from impurities and promote skin rejuvenation.
1. Gommage usually has creamy texture or is used as a gummy mask. It is applied to the face or body with a thin layer and then rolled down with gentle massage movements as it has dried.
2. Scrub is usually produced in the form of a gel, an emulsion or a cream. It contains moisturizers and nutrients as well as fine grit which provide mechanical exfoliation of dead skin cells when massaged into skin.
3. Peel-off mask has a gel-like texture which turns into a stretchy peel rolled down from the face removing dead skin cells from the skin surface.
4. Peel also has a gel-like texture containing acids, enzymes and other active ingredients which dissolve dead skin cells by a chemical reaction.
Face peels types
According to the depth of penetration:
- Superficial peel shows impact on the horny layer of skin without penetrating to the deeper layers. Doesn’t cause inflammation or skin flaking.
- Mid-grade peel penetrates the skin down to the papillary dermis partially destroying the basement membrane. Medium peels are sometimes divided into 2 categories: superficial medium-deep peel (acting on the epidermal layer without affecting the basement membrane) and mid-grade peel (partially destroying the basement membrane).
- Deep peel penetrates the skin down to the reticular dermis completely destroying the basement membrane.
According to the technique and exposure method:
1. Mechanical peeling (brushing, vacuum peeling, microdermabrasion) based on mechanical impact on skin.
- Brush-peel can be instrumental or manual. It is performed using a revolving natural bristle brush once a week by oily skin and once every 3-4 weeks by dry skin.
- Vacuum peeling is performed using a special tool which looks like a “mini vacuum cleaner”. During the procedure the air is injected under negative pressure cleansing the preliminary opened pores by pulling out the impurities. The procedure should be performed once a month.
- Microcrystalline dermabrasion is based on the impact of abrasive particles which affect the skin under pressure exfoliating dead skin cells and polishing the skin surface. The procedure is usually performed once a week.
- Gas-liquid peeling based on the impact of water and oxygen particles speeded up to hypersonic speed (1.8 Max). Can be used to perform both superficial medium-deep and mid-grade peel.
2. Physical peeling (laser peel, dermal resurfacing, cryo-peeling, ultrasonic peeling) based on physical impact on skin.
By laser peel and skin resurfacing the effect is achieved by the impact of the directed spectral light energy which provides thermal breakdown of skin layers.
- Laser peel is performed using CO2-laser or erbium YAG laser (mix of both types in one tool is also possible). The power of impact by laser peel usually doesn’t exceed 30 µm and lays between 100-150 µm by skin resurfacing. Retreatment is recommended in 6 months, laser peel – in 1 month.
Laser peel using CO2-laser is a “hot peel” which provides great results removing stretch-marks and scars, however it possesses high risk of skin burns. This method is more often used for laser skin resurfacing.
Laser peel using erbium YAG laser is a “cold peel” which possesses lower risk of developing complications as it doesn’t provide tissues warming-up. This method is also very effective.
- Ultrasonic peel is often used as a part of combination skin therapy (along with mechanical skin cleansing and heating face masks). Retreatment is recommended every 2-3 weeks.
- Cryo-peeling is based on cryotherapy (low temperatures exposure). Face skin is treated with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Extra-low temperatures promote fibroblasts production, improve blood and nutrients supply of skin cells and boost skin immunity. The procedure is usually performed 5-8 times a month.
3. Chemical peels are based on the action of acids (lactic, glycolic, azelaic, phytic, lactobionic, phenolic etc.), enzymes and bioactive substances (vitamins, minerals, amino acids).
- AHA (alpha hydroxy acids) and fruit acids (lactic, glycolic, mandelic, malic, tartaric etc.) have very small molecules, are water-soluble, provide instantaneous short-term mild effect and are fast excreted from the body.
- BHA (beta hydroxy acids) have large molecules with low penetrating power, are fat-soluble, provide an aggressive impact on skin with an instantaneous long-term effect and require a plenty of time to be excreted from the body. By cosmetologic procedures only salicylic acid is used to perform skin peels.
- Enzyme peeling is suitable for all skin types providing mild effect just like AHA.
- Bioactive substances are used to perform retinoic acid peel (using vitamin A) and peptide peel (using peptide chains consisting of the remained parts of α-amino acids).
According to skin types:
1. Dry skin face peel
For dry skin treatment AHA peels as well as gluconolactone and arginine peels are preferable. Lactic, tartaric and pyruvic acids provide moisture to the skin best of all.
2. Oily skin with excessive sebum secretion face peel
Peels containing glycolic and salicylic acids, ultrasonic and laser peel as well as microcrystalline dermabrasion suit oily skin best.
3. Problem skin face peel
Mandelic, glycolic, salicylic, retinoic, pyruvic, azelaic peels, Jessner peel and ABR-peel are used to fight acne and remove post-acne marks. Ultrasonic, vacuum and laser peels as well as microcrystalline dermabrasion are also allowed.
4. Sensitive couperose-prone skin face peel
Mandelic, lactic, azelaic, phytic, lactobionic, retinoic, enzyme and TCA peels are recommended. Mechanical peels should be avoided.
5. Normal skin face peel
All peel types can be used depending on indications and contraindications in each individual case.
1. Avoid direct sun exposure after face peel. Always use sun-screens containing SPF 25 or more. Wear a shady hat when going outside in sunny weather.
2. Most peels should be performed in autumn or in winter, i.e. by low solar activity.
3. Avoid sun tanning and solarium a week prior to the procedure as well as during the recovery time. Or cover your face with a thick towel to prevent sun exposure if it can’t be completely avoided.
4. Avoid sauna and hot baths during the recovery time.
5. Most peels require to stop intake of certain medications such as retinoids, hormons, anticoagulants and drugs which lead to photosensibility responses.
6. Pre-peel skin preparation as well as proper skin care after the procedure are required.
7. Note the indications and contraindications to the procedure.
8. Note potential complications that might appear after face peel. Get detailed information here.
Photo before and after face peel
Laser Skin Resurfacing
Common indications for skin peels:
1. Problem and acne-prone skin suffering from acne and post-acne marks, comedones, whiteheads and scars.
3. Chrono- and photo-aging of skin
4. Low skin elasticity and firmness
6. Dull face skin tone
7. Enlarged pores
8. Ptosis and и
8. Preparation for more serious procedures
Common contraindications for skin peels:
1. Pregnancy and lactation period
2. Cold-related illnesses
3. Acute phase of chronic diseases
4. Acute phase of herpes
5. Infectious skin diseases
6. Keloid prone skin
7. Skin integrity violation
8. Cardiovascular diseases
9. Oncological diseases
10. Skin diseases in acute phase (eczema, allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis etc.)
Face peel effect:
1. Smooth and soft skin
2. Improved elasticity and firmness
3. Lifting effect
4. Even and healthy face skin tone
5. Reduced wrinkles and scars
6. Reduced or removed pigmentation spots
7. Reduced acne marks
8. Skin rejuvenation
9. Activated barrier and regeneration functions of skin
10. Normalized pH balance and sebum secretion
Combination with other procedures
Face peels show better results when combined with other cosmetic procedures such as face masks, mesotherapy, biorevitalization, manual face cleansing, non-surgery thread lifting and botox injections.
Remember that even a super-effective deep face peel can’t replace a plastic surgery as it only affects physical appearance and complexion of skin without affecting deeper tissues such as muscles and fascias. To achieve significant rejuvenating effect, face peels should be combined with lift surgery.